PAVEL SAMUILOVICH GUREVICH
Immunopathology of germinal, embryonic and
early fetal periods in human.
Allogeneic conflicts.

Introduction


Chapter 1. Organization and functions of immune systems                                      
      
1.1. Nonspecific protection                                                                    
     
1.2. Specific immune responses                                                 
           
1.2.1. General cellular immune responses                            
           
1.2.2. Humoral overall immune responses                    
           
1.2.3. Secretory immune system of mucous membranes                    
           
1.2.4. Secretory barrier immune system                      
           
1.2.5. The system of individual immune protect the of vital cells and organs                                   
     
1.3. Protection of the genital tract and gonads of adult                           
           
1.3.1. Protection of female genital tract and ovaries       
           
1.3.2. Protection of the male genital tract and testicles 
      
Chapter 2. The process of fertilization and development pre-embryo.
The formation of the secretory immune system of the embryo and fetus
       
     
2.1. Fertilization                                                                                                 
     
2.2. Postfertilization processes                                                   
     
2.3. Protection of the germ at the postfertilization period                
    
2.4. The formation of the secretory immune system of the embryo and                                                                    
           
2.4.1. Barrier version of secretory immune system  
     
2.5. Conclusion       
                                                                                    
Chapter 3. Formation of individual immune protection of vital cells and organs
is human embryos and fetuses
                             
     
3.1. The development of the secretory immune system and its transformations     
     
3.2. Protection of the developing brain                                                    
           
3.2.1. Nonimmune mechanisms of brain protection                          
           
3.2.2. Secretory and other immune systems of the brain of embryos and fetuses
      3.3. Protection of the endocrine glands                                                                
           
3.3.1. Pituitary                                                                                
           
3.3.2. Thyroid gland                                                             
           
3.3.3. Parathyroid glands                                                     
           
3.3.4. Pancreatic islets                                    
           
3.3.5. Adrenals                                                                       
           
3.3.6. Three immune systems in the endocrine glands            
     
3.4. Immune protection of the myocardium of embryos and fetuses                          
     
3.5. Immune protection of the bile ducts and the hepatocytes                   
     
3.6. Protection of the developing reproductive tracts, gonads and gametes            
           
3.6.1. Formation of immune systems of genitals
           
3.6.2. Formation of immune protection of female gametes          
           
3.6.3. Formation of immune protection of male gametes  
           
3.6.4. Immune response to infection of the gonads                          
     
3.7. Self-protective immune system of the vital cells and organs                                                                       

Chapter 4. Pathology of the placental barrier in early abortion               
     
4.1. Placental barrier                                                                       
     
4.2. Materials and methods                                             
           
4.2.1. Materials                                                                         
           
4.2.2. Methodology                                                                               
           
4.2.3. Morphometric methods                                               
     
4.3. Group 1, control. Placental barrier without bacterial and allogeneic damage                           
           
4.3.1. Chorionic villi                                                                  
           
4.3.2. Placenta of the pregnant                                                         
           
4.3.3. Conclusion for group 1                                                     
     
4.4. Group 2. Disruption of the placental barrier, due to deposition of fibrin
              
on the villi of the embryo                                   
           
4.4.1. Chorionic villi                                                                  
           
4.4.2. Placenta of the pregnant                                                         
           
4.4.3. Conclusion on the Group 2                                                   
    
4.5. Group 3A. Ascending infection of the birth canal, extending throughsp
            the chorion and amnion, bypassing the placental barrier

           
4.5.1. Chorionic villi                                                                 
           
4.5.2. Placenta of the pregnant                                                        
           
4.5.3. Conclusion for the group 3A                                                   
     
4.6. Group 3B. Ascending infection of the birth canal with hematogenous spread                                                 
           
4.6.1. Chorionic villi                                                            
           
4.6.2. Placenta of the pregnant                                                         
           
4.6.3. Conclusion for the group 3B                                            
     
4.7. Group 4. Early allogeneic conflict of the pregnant and the embryo        
           
4.7.1. Chorionic villi                                                          
            
4.7.2. Placenta of the pregnant                                                         
           
4.7.3. Conclusion for the group 4                                                   
     
4.8. Conclusion for Chapter 4                
                                                      
Chapter 5. State of embryos and fetuses at an early abortion.
Allogeneic conflict                                                                                     
     
5.1. Early spontaneous abortion                                                              
     
5.2. Physiological and pathological apoptosis in early abortions
     
5.3. Transport of immunoglobulins to the embryo                                 
     
5.4. Objectives, materials and methods                                     
           
5.4.1. Research materials                                               
           
5.4.2. Methods of the study                                                        
     
5.5. Group 1, control. Normal state of embryos and early fetuses
           
5.5.1. Secretory immune system                                    
           
5.5.2. Monocytes of embryos                                                         
           
5.5.3. Overall immune system  
           
5.5.4 The process of proliferation in formation of embryonic organs
           
5.5.5. Apoptosis                                                                                         
           
5.5.6. Conclusion for group 1                                                       
     
5.6. Group 3A. Embryos and early fetuses in acute ascending infection of the birth  
             canal with the defeat of the chorion and amnion

           
5.6.1. Pathological changes of embryos                                
           
5.6.2. Pathological changes in fetuses                                       
           
5.6.3. Conclusion for the group 3A                                                        
     
5.7. Group 3B. Ascending infection of the birth canal with hematogenous spread                                                        
           
5.7.1. Pathological changes in embryos and fetuses               
           
5.7.2. Conclusion for the group 3B                                                 
     
5.8. Group 4. Early allogeneic conflict of the pregnant woman and the fetus
           
5.8.1. Effect of pathogens, apoptosis                                                 
           
5.8.2. Status of embryo                                                               
           
5.8.3. Multiple apoptosis of cells in embryonic organs   
           
5.8.4. Moderate apoptosis of embryos organs cells                
           
5.8.5. Conclusion for the Group 4                                                        
     
5.9. Conclusion for Chapter 5                                                                       

Chapter 6. Mechanisms of immune protection at pre-embryonic
and embryonic periods
                                                                                   
     
Conclusion

Chapter 7. Late allogeneic conflict: hemolytic disease of the fetus and the newborn
     
7.1. A brief history of HDFN research                                                     
     
7.2. Epidemiology                                                                                      
     
7.3. Rh-antigenic conflict: common problems                           
           
7.3.1. Anamnesis and course of pregnancy                                          
           
7.3.2. Stages of HDFN development                                                        
           
7.3.3. Forms of HDFN                                                                            
     
7.4. Pathogenic agents                                                                              
     
7.5. Hemolytic fetopathy with maceration                               
     
7.6. Anemic form of HDFN                                                                 
     
7.7. Edematous form of HDF                                                                            
     
7.8. Icteric form of HDN                                                                   
           
7.8.1. Icteric congenital HDN (or with anemia)   
           
7.8.2. Icteric HDN postpartum (or without anemia) 
           
7.8.3. Icteric form of HDN in a conflict by the ABO system
           
7.8.4. Conclusion for sections 7.4 - 7.8.
                      Features of pathology in different forms of HDFN
                      
     
7.9. Bilirubin-induced encephalopathy in jaundice of newborns and in HDN
            7.9.1. State of the brain in neonatal jaundice not associated with HDN                                            
           
7.9.2. Embryonic brain damage during early allogeneic conflict                                                        
           
7.9.3. State of the brain in RhoD HDFN                             
           
7.9.4. Brain state during HDN caused by ABO incompatibility            
     
7.10 Conclusion                                                                                 
Abbreviation                                                                                                    
CD marker antigens                                                    
List of references